5 Approaches to social casework practice

Working with individual clients to help them solve their problems requires specific approaches based on the type of problem. Some of these approaches are discussed in detail in the following section.

Problem solving approach

This approach was propounded by HH Perlman in which the focus is to help individuals identify their own truth and take small actions and develop confidence to tackle complex problems of daily life. This model is also called the practical or pragmatic approach and entails three basic steps towards problem solving.

  1. Ascertain the facts related to the problem
  2. Thinking through the facts
  3. Making a choice by the client with the help of the caseworker.

Through the problem solving process an individual or family is helped to cope with or resolve some difficulty that he/she is currently finding difficult to solve. Thus the primary goal of the problem solving model is to help a person cope as effectively as possible with problems in carrying out social tasks. Initially attempts are made to engage the client to know and understand the problem then later on he/she is helped to take actions to solve their own problem. The caseworker in this approach does not solve the problem but facilitates the client to develop their coping skills to deal with the problems. The client is helped to identify his strengths and weaknesses and work upon them.

Behaviour Modification approach

    This approach derives largely from the principles of learning propounded by various scholars like Pavlov, Thorndike and Skinner. Behavioural  school  views problem as the result of a failure to learn necessary adaptive behaviours and competencies and/or learning of ineffective and maladaptive behaviours. It may happen due to conflicting situations that require the individual to make decisions for  which he/she feels incapable. The maladjusted person learnd faulty coping patterns, which are maintained by some kind of reinforcement, and he/she fails to learn needed competencies for coping with the problem of living. Through behaviour modification approach the individual is helped to adopt desirable behaviour and do away with or modify undesirable behaviours. 

    Various techniques of behaviour modification are 

    Simple Extinction

    In this technique, the reinforcement is removed to eliminate a maladaptive pattern of behaviour. This is especially helpful where maladaptive behaviour is being reinforced unknowingly by others. Through this technique, learned behaviour patterns are made weaker and disappear overtime.

    Systematic Desensitization

    It is a technique to deal with a wide variety of maladaptive emotional behaviours, particularly involving anxiety, irrational fears and phobias and other forms of dysfunctions i.e. neurotic tendencies. There are five basic steps in systematic desensitization:

    (1) assessment, (2) construction of anxiety hierarchies,(3) training in muscle relaxation, (4) imaginary training, and (5) implementation.

    Impulsive Therapy

    In this technique the social caseworker attempts to extract all anxiety. With repeated exposure to a particular stimulus in a safe setting where no harm is felt by the client, the stimulus loses its strength to elicit anxiety.

    Assertive Therapy

    It is needed to develop more effective coping mechanism.In such therapy, the opportunity is given to the client for role-playing.

    Aversion Therapy

    This technique is used for the modification of undesirable behaviour by the method of punishment. Punishment may involve either the removal of positive reinforcements or use of aversive stimuli.

    Psychosocial approach

    This approach is based on the psychoanalytic and psychosocial theories which believes that an individual personality structures is the result of interaction between the self and the external environment. In this approach,  the client is seen in the context of his/her interactions and transactions with the outer world. For proper diagnosis and treatment client’s social context must be understood and mobilized. Treatment must be differentiated according to the need of the client. Three stages are involved in psycho-social approach.

    Psycho-social Study

    Social Caseworker starts his/her work with the knowledge of the needs of the client. The caseworker on the basis of the needs, assesses what kind of help is needed. The caseworker also finds out the perception of the client about his/her own problem and desires about the kind of assistance to be provided. The caseworker  tries to arrive at his own understanding of what the client’s trouble is, what factors contribute to it and what type of service is needed to improve client’s ego strength and adaptability.


    On the basis of the information  collected about the problem and available material, social caseworker tries to assess the nature of client’s trouble contributing factors and where changes can be brought in his/her behaviour without much efforts.


    Social Caseworker gives much emphasis on indirect treatment or environmental modification. The caseworker intervenes actively in the environment and provides necessary help to the client. If required the caseworker also  provides financial help by locating such agency, proper health care and also educational resources. Direct treatment is also provided for the ventilation of the client’s ego to accept concrete help. Psychological support, counselling, suggestions, etc. techniques are used to establish close relations with the client.

    Crisis intervention

    This approach is applied when help is needed in an emergency and immediate action has to be taken to solve the problem. Hence, this approach is used in a crisis situation. A crisis is an  acute disruption of psychological homeostasis in which one’s usual coping mechanisms fail and there exists evidence of distress and functional impairment. The subjective reaction to a stressful life experience that compromises the individual’s stability and ability to cope or function. The main cause of a crisis is an intensely stressful, traumatic, or hazardous event, but two other conditions are also necessary:

     (1) the individual’s perception of the event as the cause of considerable upset and/or disruption; and 

    (2) the individual’s inability to resolve the disruption by previously used coping mechanisms. 

    Crisis also refers to “an upset in the steady state.” It often has five components: a hazardous or traumatic event, a vulnerable or unbalanced state, a precipitating factor, an active crisis state based on the person’s perception, and the resolution of the crisis.

    Crisis intervention is a speciality of the mental health discipline and highly skilled professionals deals with clients in a crisis situation arising due to loss of a loved one, victim of natural calamity, divorce , accident etc.

    Eclectic approach

    This approach comprises of combination of all approaches. According to this practice model, one approach may not be sufficient to deal with complex life’s problems hence a combination of two or more approaches can be be used simultaneously or/also in a modified form. Hence behaviour modification and problem solving approaches can be used simultaneously. 


    The choice of the approach lies with the caseworker and it depends on the competence and skills of the caseworker to choose the right approach.

    Leave a Comment